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二级域标签生成规则 (LGR) 参考列表编制指南第 2 版


评议开放日期: 2020 年 3 月 30 日 截止日期: 2020 年 5 月 12 日
发起组织: 全球域名分部
类别/标签: 二级域

ICANN 组织现已发布多语言 标签生成规则 (Label Generation Rules, LGR) 参考列表,用以促进通用顶级域 (generic Top Level Domain, gTLD) 注册管理机构在国际化域名 (Internationalized Domain Name, IDN) 运营方面的安全性和稳定性。用于 IDN 参考列表的 现有指南 的重点放在编制以语言为基础的 LGR 参考列表之上。自那以后,相关社群针对 根区标签生成规则 (Root Zone Label Generation Rules, RZ-LGR) 进行了多种文字的详细分析。这些分析现可被用于编制这些文字的二级域 LGR 参考列表。因此我们对 二级域标签生成规则 (LGR) 参考列表编制指南进行更新,除了以语言为基础的 LGR 参考以外,还将如何设计以文字为基础的 LGR 参考的详细内容纳入了进来。这些指南现已发布,供社群针对拟定方法提出反馈意见。这些指南将在纳入了社群意见后得到定稿。ICANN 组织将按照这些指南继续编制其他语言和文字的 IDN 列表,并公开发布以征询公众意见。


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."