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最大启动字汇第 4 版 (MSR-4) 现已发布


洛杉矶——2019 年 2 月 7 日——互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, lCANN) 于今天宣布最大启动字汇第 4 版(简称"MSR-4")现已发布。这一版与 MSR-3 版追溯兼容,并在拉丁文字汇中添加了 3 个码点,在缅甸文字汇中添加了 12 个码点。根据《根区中 IDN 标签生成规则的制定和维护规程 (Procedure to Develop and Maintain Label Generation Rules for the Root Zone with Respect to IDN Labels)》[PDF, 771 KB],MSR 是社群生成专家组的工作起点。这类专家组负责为相关文字的根区标签生成规则 (RZ-LGR) 编制提案。

有关 MSR-4 的内容和制定详细理由请参见《MSR-4——概览和理由》[PDF, 800 KB]一文。MSR-4 囊括了以下 28 种文字:阿拉伯文、亚美尼亚文、孟加拉文、西里尔文、梵文、埃塞俄比亚文、格鲁吉亚文、希腊文、古吉拉特文、果鲁穆奇文、汉文、朝鲜文、希伯来文、日语平假名、埃纳德文、日语片假名、高棉语、老挝语、拉丁文、马来亚拉姆文、缅甸文、奥里雅语、僧伽罗文、泰米尔文、泰卢固文、塔安娜文、藏文和泰国语。针对这些文字,MSR-4 包含一份拥有 33,511 个码点的简短清单,源于统一域名编码 (Unicode) 第 6.3 版中列出的 97,973 个有效/语境码点。

MSR-4 对现已被纳入 Unicode 后续编码版本的码点进行了延迟发布。这类码点将在其对应的 IDNA 2008 参考表出版后正式发布。此外,整合专家组还负责监督任何尚未列入 MSR 的文字,关注该文字的 MSR 修改批准指示。但在 MSR 进行调整前,MSR-4 将作为任何 RZ-LGR 版本编制的基础。MSR 的所有后续版本和 RZ-LGR 的所有版本必须保留完全追溯兼容性。


ICANN 的使命在于确保全球互联网的稳定、安全与统一。在互联网上寻找另一个人的信息,您必须在您的电脑或其他设备中键入一个地址——可以是一个名称或是一串数字。这一地址必须是独一无二的,只有这样电脑之间才能互相识别。ICANN 则负责协调这些分布在全球各地的唯一标识符。ICANN 成立于 1998 年,是一家非营利公益型企业,其社群成员遍布全球各地。

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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."