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在全体通用顶级域 (gTLD) 中保护某些特定的国际政府间组织 (IGO) 和国际非政府间组织 (INGO) 标识符的共识性政策的实施


洛杉矶——2018 年 1 月 16 日——互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN) 于今日宣布全体 ICANN 的通用顶级域 (generic top-level domain, gTLD) 签约方必须执行一套新的共识性政策:《在全体 gTLD 中对某些特定国际政府间组织 (intergovernmental organizations, IGO) 和国际非政府间组织 (international nongovernmental organizations, INGO) 的标识符加以保护》。这套共识性政策仅涉及在通用名称支持组织 (Generic Names Supporting Organization, GNSO) 的一项政策制定流程结束后,由 ICANN 董事会于 2014 年 4 月特别批准的一组标识符。这组标识符中并未囊括仍处在 ICANN 董事会批准流程之中或仍处在 GNSO 政策流程之中的 IGO 和 INGO 标识符。

签约方将需要在 2018 年 8 月 1 日前针对这些特定的 IGO 域名、国际奥林匹克委员会 (International Olympic Committee, IOC) 和红十字/红新月运动 (Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, RCRC) 的域名执行新的要求。ICANN 组织目前正在编制《INGO 索赔系统规范 (INGO Claims Systems Specification)》。针对 INGO 的实施阶段则将在上述规范发布 12 个月后执行。

这套政策中的保护措施仅适用于 ICANN 董事会现已采纳的建议中指明的特定 IGO、INGO、IOC 和 RCRC 的具体域名。本政策要求注册管理运行机构在二级域名的注册流程中留存 IGO、IOC 和 RCRC 的具体域名。针对 INGO,本政策要求在二级域名中提供索赔通知。

其他信息将发布在 ICANN 通用名称支持组织工作组IGO/INGO 实施审核小组维基页面上。


ICANN 的使命在于确保全球互联网的稳定、安全与统一。在互联网上寻找另一个人的信息,您必须在您的电脑或其他设备中键入一个地址——可以是一个名称或是一串数字。这一地址必须是独一无二的,只有这样电脑之间才能互相识别。ICANN 则负责协调这些分布在全球各地的唯一标识符。ICANN 成立于 1998 年,是一家非营利公益型企业,其社群成员遍布全球各地。

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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."