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美国政府合同到期,IANA 职能管理权顺利移交至全球互联网社群

今天,2016 年 10 月 1 日,互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN) 和美国商务部国家电信和信息管理局 (United States Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration, NTIA) 之间订立的执行互联网号码分配机构 (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA) 职能的合同现已正式到期。这一历史性的时刻标志着自 1998 年以来一直推进的将互联网唯一标识符的协调和管理移交至私营部门的流程正式结束。

"此次移交早在 18 年前就已确定。正是在全球互联网社群的不懈努力下,最终提案得以编制完成,并使得移交成为现实,"ICANN 董事会主席史蒂夫 D. 克罗克 (Steve D. Crocker) 表示。"社群验证了互联网治理的多利益相关方模型。此次移交展示了囊括所有声音,包括企业、学术界、技术专家、公民社会、政府和其他相关方的治理模型是确保互联网在未来也能像现在一样维持自由性、开放性和可及性的最佳方式。"


在管理互联网唯一标识符的协调工作时,ICANN 在互联网的生态系统中只是担任着小部分但却十分重要的职责。15 年来,ICANN 一直与其他技术机构保持合作,例如:互联网工程任务组 (Internet Engineering Task Force)、地区互联网注册管理机构 (Regional Internet Registries)、顶级域注册管理机构和注册服务机构等等。

这一私有化流程的最后步骤始于 2014 年,届时 NTIA 要求 ICANN 召集全球多利益相关方社群(由私营部门代表、技术专家、学术界、公民社会、政府部门和个人互联网终端用户构成)齐聚一堂编制提案,从而替代 NTIA 担任的历史性管理职责,并加强 ICANN 的问责机制。

这套由全球社群编制的一揽子提案满足了 NTIA 在 2014 年 3 月发布的公告中所确定的严苛标准。自这些提案被呈交给 NTIA 后,ICANN 及其各类利益相关方团体就在坚持不懈地确保完成所有必要实施任务,使得 IANA 职能合同能够在 2016 年 9 月 30 日顺利到期。

这些提案加强了 ICANN 的现有多利益相关方模型,并旨在改善 ICANN 的问责制。这些改进项目包括:为全球互联网社群赋权,使其在不同意 ICANN 或其董事会的决定时,拥有直接追索权。

IANA 管理权移交流程检验了全球社群的不懈努力,验证了构建这一社群的多利益相关方模型。

如需了解更多有关 IANA 管理权移交的资讯,请点击此处:

阿克兰·阿特拉 (Akram Atallah) 的博文:《最后实施阶段最新资讯》

史蒂夫 D. 克罗格 (Stephen D. Crocker) 的博文:《为多利益相关方社群喝彩》

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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."