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字母/字母型双字符 ASCII 标签拟定措施发布,以避免与相应国家代码发生混淆

评议开放日期: 2016 年 7 月 8 日 截止日期: 2016 年 8 月 17 日
发起组织: 全球域名分部
类别/标签:
  • 顶级域
  • 二级域
  • 签约方协议
  • 安全性/稳定性
简介:

根据新通用顶级域《注册管理机构协议》规范 5 第 2 节, "ASCII 标签中的全部双字符域名已被留存,或已连同顶级域同时分配给了注册管理运行机构。这类标签不得在域名系统中被激活,且不得释放给除了注册管理运行机构以外的任何个人或实体。但注册管理运行机构和相关政府和国家和地区域经理签订了协议后,即可释放这类双字符标签的字符串,释放程度需要遵守《ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 标准》。注册管理运行机构可根据自身的实施措施提议释放这些预留域名,以避免与相应国家代码形成混淆,此举应由 ICANN 审核批准”。

本轮公共评议期旨在搜集社群反馈意见,从而编制一套注册管理机构必须实施的措施,用以释放现已根据《注册管理机构协议》规范 5 第 6 节而留存在域名系统中的字母/字母型双字符 ASCII 标签。该措施一旦通过,则采纳了这些措施的所有通用顶级域注册管理机构均将释放现已留存的双字符二级域。

链接: https://www.icann.org/public-comments/proposed-measures-two-char-2016-07-08-en

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."