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域名系统管理人启动全球多利益相关方问责制流程

互联网名称与数字地址分配机构(ICANN)于今日启动一项流程,以移交美国政府对互联网唯一标识符系统的职责。

美国政府今日发表声明,预备将其对互联网技术职能的管理职责移交至全球互联网社群,ICANN随即就此问题于今日发表了这一历史性的声明。美国政府目前需要移交的职责包括:针对域名系统(DNS)管理变更事宜的程序上的职责、批准授权根域文件(包含所有顶级域名的名称清单和地址的数据库)、一直以来作为管理域名、IP地址和协议参数的唯一标识符注册局的监管人。

美国承认ICANN已经成长成为一家有效的多利益相关方组织,并请求ICANN召集全球社群制定移交流程,将美国的管理职能移交至一个基于全球社群的、以共识为基础的机制手中。

ICANN总裁兼首席执行官Fadi Chehadé指出:"我们正诚邀各国政府、私营部门、民间社会和全球其他互联网组织与我们一道制定移交流程。"所有利益相关方均应作为平等的合作伙伴,在这一全球资源的管理和治理过程中,表达自己的看法。"

除了美国政府的移交问题以外,互联网技术组织的职责,包括ICANN管理互联网唯一标识符系统的职责,暂时不会发生变更。大部分互联网用户并不熟悉互联网唯一标识符的职能,但是他们在维护互联网的全球性、统一性和互用性方面起着至关重要的作用。

ICANN董事会主席Stephen D Crocker博士指出:"尽管ICANN将继续执行这些关键技术职能,美国一直以来都希望将这一管理职能移交至全球社群。""换句话说,我们一直以来都知道终点是什么。现在,是全球利益相关方社群决定未来发展前景的时候了。"

Chehadé指出:"全球多利益相关方流程旨在确保兼容并蓄,因此获得所有必要的意见和看法是需要花去一定时日的。""目前与美国政府订立的合同将于2015年9月到期,届时,我们将已经制定了一套明确清晰的流程,以通过全球多利益相关方的方式管理ICANN执行这些技术职能。"

针对制定移交流程的首次全体社群对话将于3月23至27日在ICANN第49届新加坡公共会议上召开。竭诚欢迎全球的利益相关方亲自或通过远程接入的方式参会。


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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."