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独立报告提出缓和域名冲突问题的可行方式

ICANN授权的一份题为>《缓和DNS域名空间冲突》的独立报告囊括了如何缓和域名冲突风险的一系列实质性建议。

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当尝试对私营域名空间中的一个域名进行解析时,却导致了对公共域名系统(DNS)的查询,此时即发生了域名冲突事件。

ICANN全球域名分布总裁Akram Atallah指出:"本报告对域名冲突问题、潜在风险和影响进行了深度考察,为我们给出了明确的建议,以帮助系统运营商探测并缓和这些风险。"接下来,我们需要针对本报告的结论向社群征询意见。"

本报告强调,域名冲突并不是新问题。ICANN新gTLD项目下的顶级域名(TLD)扩展过程中所碰到的任何问题也可能出现在域名系统中的其他地方。但本报告指出:顶级域名的数量扩展并不会从根本上或很大程度上增加域名冲突的风险。

特别地,本调查研究提出了一系列建议,以帮助ICANN和TLD运营商处理在TLD空间扩展时出现的域名冲突问题。

  • ICANN应要求新TLD注册局在域名在根域获得授权后立即执行并发布时长为120天的控制干扰区,该区域应由ICANN予以监督。
    • 120天过后,针对这一顶级域名应不再使用任何其他与域名冲突相关的限制了。
  • ICANN应设有紧急响应流程,用以分析上报的"明显可能威胁到人类生活的"问题,并立即采取行动。
  • ICANN和社群中的其他成员应当继续搜集和分析与根服务器相关的数据和与控制干扰时期相关的数据。
  • ".corp"、".home"和".mail"等顶级域名应当获得永久保留。

本报告现公开发布征询公众意见,评议期截止至2014年4月21日。


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."