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新gTLD无点域名已被禁止使用

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ICANN董事会新gTLD项目委员会(简称"NGPC")在于2013年8月13日召开的会议上确认并采纳了禁止使用"无点域域名"的决议。无点域名是指以单一标签构成的域名(例如:http://example,或mail@example)。无点域需要在域名系统中纳入顶级域名区域的顶端记录,例如:A、AAAA或MX(即该记录需要涉及顶级域名字符串本身)。

除了考虑针对无点域的公众意见以外,NGPC还对以下几份涉及无点域安全性和稳定性的文件进行了考量:

  • 2012年2月23日,ICANN安全和稳定咨询委员会(简称"SSAC")发布了SAC 053号文件:SSAC关于无点域的报告 [PDF文件,183 KB]。在本报告中,SSAC指出,无点域将无法在全球范围内得到普遍使用,因而强烈建议禁止使用无点域。因此,SSAC建议顶级域名(TLD)顶端的域名系统资源记录(例如:A、AAAA和MX)应当在任何适当的情况下根据合同加以禁止,并强烈反对在任何情况下对其使用。
  • 2013年7月10日,互联网架构委员会(IAB)发布了一份《关于无点域的声明》,建议在顶级域名中禁止使用无点域。
  • 2013年7月29日, Carve Systems公司按照ICANN的授权,提交了一份有关无点域的报告。Carve 公司的《关于无点域的报告》 [PDF文件,1.02 MB] 与SSAC的报告保持一致,确认了相关的安全性和稳定性问题。

采纳这项决议之时,NGPC考虑了这些文件中提到的安全性和稳定性风险,以及缓和这些风险的实际可行性。根据NGPC的决议,ICANN计划将不再对此问题进行额外的研究。


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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."