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ccNSO 研究小组关于使用国家和地区名称作为 TLD 的最终报告草案

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论坛公告: 意见征询期开始: 日期: 2013 年 7 月 2 日
类别/标签:
  • 顶级域名
  • 政策流程
  • 透明度/问责制
目的(概要):

多年以来,将国家和地区名称作为顶级域名使用一直是 ccNSO、GAC、GNSO、ALAC 和 ICANN 理事会讨论的重点。

目前,许多 ICANN 政策流程中都涌现出有关使用国家和地区名称各种表示形式的问题,包括 IDN 快速通道流程、IDN ccPDP 以及新 gTLD 《申请人指南》的制定流程。

在认识到忽略国家和地区名称对广大利益主体的重要性后,ccNSO 委员会召集了研究小组对国家和地区名称的使用进行了研究。现在,研究小组已完成其工作,欢迎各 ICANN 机构群体对此提供反馈和意见。

公众意见专区链接: http://www.icann.org/en/news/public-comment/unct-final-02jul13-en.htm

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."