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所有 TLD 的普遍接受度 - 布拉格会议

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让整个互联网普遍接受所有顶级域名是 ICANN 正在实施的一项举措。我们的目标是提升所有互联网用户对互联网域名多样化的认知。在 20 世纪 80 年代和 90 年代,顶级域名 (TLD) 数量少,并且都使用相同的基本格式,即两个字符的 ASCII 国家代码 TLD (ccTLD) 或少数使用三个字符的 ASCII 通用 TLD (gTLD)。这种标准格式使软件供应商和网站开发商纷纷制定自己的计划,对被认为有效的 TLD 进行了具体假设。只要软件可以识别 TLD,人们就可以使用它。在过去的十年中,新一代超过三个字符的 ASCII gTLD 问世,并且增添了使用各种非拉丁文字符号书写的新域名,称为国际化域名 (IDN)。借助于新 gTLD 计划和 IDN ccTLD 快速通道流程,我们将在不远的将来看到更多的 TLD(包括 IDN TLD)。正因如此,ICANN 才会致力于提升互联网软件开发商的认知,以便他们能够籍此开发可兼容所有域名的软件,而不是依靠过时的假设。

在 ICANN 哥斯达黎加会议期间,我们针对 TLD 接受度进行了圆桌讨论。专家小组就此问题分享了他们的经验。我们听到了许多关于如何更好地努力提升专家和机构群体对此举措的认知的建议。

在即将召开的 ICANN 布拉格会议期间,我们不会特别就此主题召开会议。但是,我们会接触网络普通用户咨询委员会 (ALAC)、国家或地区代码域名支持组织 (ccNSO) 等团体及其他组织,以便安排时间与他们就此举措以及如何帮助提升认知进行讨论。

如果您对此项工作有任何疑问或希望在布拉格会议期间安排时间来了解更多有关此举措以及如何帮助提升认知的信息,请联系 ICANN 工作人员,电子邮件 tld-acceptance@icann.org


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."