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Results of ICANN Study on the Prevalence of Domain Names Registered Using a Privacy or Proxy Registration Service

Over the years, the ICANN community has expressed interest in and raised questions about domain names registered using a privacy or proxy registration service.  In response, ICANN conducted an exploratory study in 2009 to assess an approximate percentage of domain names (through a statistical sampling plan) contained in the top 5 gTLD registries that used privacy or proxy registration services.

The study indicated that at least 18% (and probably not much more than 20%) of the domain names contained in the top 5 gTLD registries used privacy or proxy registration services. 

Please see the Privacy Proxy Registration Services Study Report [PDF, 572 KB] for more information.

This information is posted for a forty five day public comment period commencing at 12:00 pm Pacific Daylight Time (19:00 UTC) on 14 September 2010 through 11:59 a.m. Pacific Daylight time (18:59 UTC) on 28 October 2010.

Comments can be submitted to and viewed at

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."