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缓和域名系统滥用行为的新 gTLD 项目保护措施报告草案现已发布以征询公众意见

ICANN 与今日发布《新 gTLD 项目域名系统 (DNS) 反滥用保护措施》的报告草案。本草案报告现将在 2016 年 4 月 21 日前征询公众意见。

阅读《新 gTLD 项目 DNS 反滥用保护措施》报告草案 [PDF, 1.17 MB]。

本报告由 ICANN 工作人员撰写,针对新 gTLD 项目中现行用以缓和 DNS 滥用行为的 保护措施 [PDF, 128 KB]而探索了各种衡量措施有效性的方案。本文确定了 DNS 滥用的各种行为,并对新 gTLD 和 DNS 中所出现的界定滥用水平的各项指标进行了评估。本文还针对这些保护措施考量了用户反馈意见,并另行提出了研究提案,以查看这些保护措施如何影响滥用率。

ICANN 现针对这份报告和新 gTLD 中的 DNS 滥用行为的衡量征询利益相关方的反馈意见。公共评议期结束后,本报告将再次更新,囊括所收到的反馈意见。

针对报告提交评论

《新 gTLD 项目 DNS 反滥用保护措施》报告中支持的一项活动旨在帮助一批以社群为基础的志愿者团队确定新 gTLD 项目如何影响着域名系统中的竞争、消费者信任和消费者选择 (CCT)。

新 gTLD 项目审核

自 2013 年 10 月首次发放授权以来,ICANN 的新 gTLD 项目已经向互联网根区引入了上百个新通用顶级域。针对本项目的全面审核工作也已启动,具体涉及多个主题:竞争、消费者信任和选择;安全和稳定;权利保护和其他领域。除了授权第三方进行分析以外,ICANN 还正在针对新 gTLD 项目所带来的影响搜集利益相关方的体验。

ICANN 简介

ICANN 的使命在于确保全球互联网的稳定、安全与统一。在互联网上寻找另一个人的信息,您必须在您的电脑中键入一个地址——可以是一个名称或是一串数字。这一地址必须是独一无二的,只有这样电脑之间才能互相识别。ICANN 则负责协调这些分布在全球各地的唯一标识符。ICANN 是成立于 1998 年的一家非营利性公益型企业,其社群中的参与人遍布世界各地。ICANN 及其社群帮助维持互联网的安全、稳定和互用性。该组织还负责制定互联网顶级域系统的政策,提高该系统的竞争水平,并促进其他互联网唯一标识符的使用。如需了解更多信息,请参见: www.icann.org


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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."