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IDN 变体 TLD 计划 - 修订版


论坛公告: 意见征询期开始于 日期: 2012 年 5 月 4 日
类别/标签: 顶级域名
目的(概要): 此项目的目的是解决授权变体 TLD 所必需的多个问题。应 ICANN 理事会和机构群体的要求,首个 IDN 变体问题项目探讨了在 DNS 根区域中引入 IDN 变体 TLD 的相关问题。此项目的前两个阶段已经结束,并于 2012 年 2 月 20 日发布了最终综合问题报告;目前,此项目进入了下一阶段。ICANN 为后续步骤制定了计划并已发布征询公众意见,该计划已在 2012 年 3 月哥斯达黎加 ICANN 会议期间的讨论会上呈递。已经根据迄今收到的意见对该项目计划进行更新,目前,该团队希望在此次公众意见征询期内就已修订计划征求意见。

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."