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Harms and Concerns Posed by NXDOMAIN Substitution (DNS Wildcard and Similar Technologies) at Registry Level

This explanatory memorandum [PDF, 227K] describes the harms and concerns posed by NXDOMAIN substitution (commonly implemented by the use of DNS wildcard) at the registry level. The paper is a collection of the findings published by experts on the subject.

On 10 June 2009, the Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC) published an advisory stating that the redirection and synthesizing of DNS responses (e.g., DNS wildcard) by TLDs poses a clear and significant danger to the security and stability of the Domain Name System.

At its public meeting in Sydney in June 2009, the ICANN Board of Directors resolved that new top-level domains should not use DNS redirection and synthesizing of DNS responses.

In response to the Board resolution, ICANN staff included a prohibition against redirection and synthesizing of DNS responses in the draft Registry Agreement for new gTLDs. ICANN also included a similar commitment as part of the request for new IDN ccTLDs in the proposed Terms and Conditions and in the three proposed relationship options between ICANN and the IDN ccTLD manager.

The Board also directed ICANN staff to report on the harms and concerns posed by the use of redirection and synthesizing of DNS responses; collectively, NXDOMAIN substitution.

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."