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ICANN 宣布欧洲委员会和老挝的国际化域名 (IDN) 国家和地区顶级域 (ccTLD) 现已成功通过字符串审核

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洛杉矶——2019 年 6 月 5 日——互联网名称和数字地址分配机构 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN) 于今日宣布由 EURid 申请的欧洲委员会的(希腊语)拟定国际化域名 (Internationalized Domain Name, IDN) 国家和地区顶级域 (country code top-level domain, ccTLD) 字符串,以及老挝国家互联网中心 (Lao National Internet Center, LANIC) 申请的老挝 IDN ccTLD 现已成功通过审核。如需查看本次成功审核的详情请参见:http://www.icann.org/en/resources/idn/fast-track/string-evaluation-completion

ICANN 董事会于 2009 年 10 月 30 日在韩国首尔宣布通过《IDN ccTLD 快速通道流程》。首批申请自 2009 年 11 月 16 日起开始接收。该流程使得国家和地区可向 ICANN 提交有关 IDN ccTLD 的申请,使用非拉丁字母的文字来代表相应国家或地区名称。IDN ccTLD 申请必须满足以下几个要求:

  • 代表 IDN ccTLD 的文字必须为非拉丁字母文字;
  • 代表该 IDN ccTLD 的语言必须为该国或该地区的官方语言;和
  • 必须满足一套特殊技术要求(由一批域名系统 (DNS) 和 IDN 专家构成的外部 DNS 稳定性专家小组对技术要求进行审核)。

申请和评估流程包含三个步骤:

  • 筹备阶段(该国/地区的申请人的筹备工作):必须扩大对拟定 IDN ccTLD 申请的社群意识;告知社群谁将运营该顶级域,以及运营方案如何;准备和搜集所有必要支持文件。各类申请及支持本流程的其他材料则通过一套在线系统提交,该系统链接为:http://forms.icann.org/idn/apply.php
  • 字符串审核:按照上述 IDN ccTLD 字符串的标准,所有申请均将接受技术和语言要求的审核。
  • 字符串授权:成功满足字符串审核标准的申请将获得申请授权的资格。申请流程与以 ASCII 字符为基础的 ccTLD 的 ICANN IANA 申请流程相同。申请人须将字符串授权申请提交至 IANA 根区管理:root-mgmt@iana.org

包括本公告在内,目前共有 42 个国家/地区提交的 61 个字符串申请成功通过了审核。其中,代表 39 个国家/地区的 57 个 IDN ccTLD 已在域名系统根区中获得授权;余下部分目前分别处在申请筹备阶段、正式申请阶段或字符串授权阶段。IDN 快速通道项目的最新动态将随时在"快速通道流程"网页上发布: https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/fast-track-2012-02-25-en

ICANN 期待着将满足"快速通道流程"要求的非拉丁字母国家和地区域名呈现给大家。ICANN 还将在"快速通道流程"中继续接收新的字符串审核申请。在"快速通道流程"中,我们还将为所有感兴趣的国家和地区提供员工支持。如需了解更多参与详情,或提出问题,请发送电子邮件至:IDNProgram@icann.org

ICANN 简介

ICANN 的使命在于确保全球互联网的稳定、安全与统一。在互联网上寻找另一个人的信息,您必须在您的电脑或其他设备中键入一个地址——可以是一个名称或是一串数字。这一地址必须是独一无二的,只有这样电脑之间才能互相识别。ICANN 则负责协调这些分布在全球各地的唯一标识符。ICANN 成立于 1998 年,是一家非营利公益型企业,其社群成员遍布全球各地。


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."