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A computer operated by cyberattackers that issues commands to devices that comprise a botnet. A botnet is a collection of malware-infected devices (bots) that act in response to commands from a botnet C&C. Typically, a botnet C&C instructs elements of its botnet to extract information from their host systems or engage in malicious action such as a distributed denial-of-service attack.
A consultative style of decision-making that provides an opportunity for open and equal participation at all levels. At ICANN, policy recommendations flow up from the stakeholder level, which includes directly affected parties, Internet users, businesses, and anyone else who would like to participate, to the ICANN Board.
In the New Generic Top-Level Domain Program (New gTLD Program), a designation for a TLD that is operated by and for an entity under its trademarked name as outlined in the entity’s Registry Agreement with ICANN. To qualify as a brand TLD, a registry operator must apply for the brand TLD designation and the brand’s trademark must be recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse.
The transfer of some or all domain name registrations from one registrar to another. Bulk transfers are used when a registrar is purchased by another company. They are also used to transfer registrations to an accredited registrar when a registrar loses its accreditation. ICANN must approve bulk transfers.