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Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC)

Biographies and Statements of Interest of SSAC Members

The following biographies include any statements of interest that may relate to members’ work on the SSAC. The following information is in the process of being updated. Additional biographical information will be added as it becomes available.

Alain Aina

Network engineer, M. Aina is very active in technical networking activities is AFRICA. He worked to launch the first full IP services in Togolese Republic in 1996 and helped many entities to do so in West Africa and on the continent in general.

He founded in 1999 a private company (, which provides network and training services to boost Networking and Internet services deployment on the continent. AFNOG founder and instructor since 2000, he leads many Internet related projects and activities for the good of the local community. Since November 2006, he works as “special project manager” at AfriNIC, a half time activity, which includes various projects (DNSSEC, RPKI, root server Anycast....), training, and IETF activities for the RIR. He served from June 2008 to December 2008 as acting CTO.

He also works for NSRC on various projects, supporting networking activities as part time work. As ICT expert for Francophonie, he does some training and consultations mainly for the French-speaking environment. He is a member of the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee since 2002.

Jaap Akkerhuis

Jaap Akkerhuis is a research engineer at NLnet Labs, a small research and development group that focuses on those developments in Internet technology where bridges between theory and practical deployment need to be built and areas where engineering and standardization takes place.

Jaap has been instrumental in the development of the Internet in the Netherlands and in Europe in the early 1980s. After a period of seven years in the US where he was active at the Information Technology Center from CMU (Pittsburgh PA), mt Xinu (Berkeley, CA) and AT&T Bell Labs (Nurray Hill, NJ), he returned to the Netherlands where he joined the first independent ISP. Later he worked as a Technical Advisor for SIDN, the registry of the .NL TLD.

He has served in the SSAC since its inception and is co-chair of the RIPE DNS working group and served as a co-chair for the IETF ProvReg WG. He is a regular consultant to ICANN and their member of the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency.

Harald Alvestrand

Harald Alvestrand was born in Norway in 1959, and graduated from the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) in 1984. He has worked for Norsk Data, UNINETT (the university network of Norway), EDB Maxware, Cisco Systems and, since 2006, for Google.

He has been active in Internet standardization via the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) since 1991, and has written a number of RFCs, including RFC 1766, the first standard for language tags in Internet protocols.

In the IETF, he has been an area director of the Applications area (1995-1998) and of the Operations & Management area (1998-1999; a member of the Internet Architecture Board (1999-2001), and served as chair of the IETF from 2001 to 2006.

He was alternate chair of the ICANN DNSO General Assembly from December 1999 to April 2001, and was a member of the WIPO panel of experts on the DNS in 1998-1999.

He is currently a board member of NORID (the .no domain name registry), ICANN and the Unicode Consortium.

He lives in Trondheim, Norway, is married, and has 3 children.

Statement of Interest: Harald Alvestrand is a board member of Norid, a ccTLD registry, and works for Google, a registrar.

Roy Arends

Roy Arends is a Senior Researcher at Nominet UK, and an expert on DNSSEC and DNS. He co-authored several IETF standards on DNSSEC and is currently on the board of directors DNS-OARC. In the past, Roy was chair of CERT-NL at SURFnet, the dutch academic network.

Statement of Interest: Nominet operates at the heart of e-commerce in the UK, running one of the world’s largest Internet registries and managing over seven million domain names. Making the Internet a more trusted place for all is one of Nominet's main objectives.

Jeffrey Bedser

Jeffrey R. Bedser is co-founder and president/COO of the Internet Crimes Group, Inc. An early career in corporate security management and investigations during the eighties and nineties facilitated a broad range of experience in the financial and pharmaceutical industries.

Under Mr. Bedser's leadership, ICG has set the industry standards in developing responses to Internet threat communities and cybercrime. ICG’s innovative approach to driving actions against Internet threats has resulted in thousands of successful actions to mitigate Internet threats and millions of dollars in remuneration to injured parties. Mr. Bedser provides cybercrime educational program support to the Criminal Justice Department of Rutgers University and to the New York State Judicial Institute. He received his undergraduate degree from Rutgers College of Rutgers University.

Media:His expertise has made him a sought after expert on the topics of cyber crime. Several major media outlets including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Money Magazine, The Financial Times, Business Week, CNN’s TechTV and The Voice of America - have featured Mr. Bedser.

Mr. Bedser has been a facilitator and speaker for ASIS International, INFRAGARD, HTCIA, Net Focus, the NHTCU’s eCrime Congress, the National Investor Relations Institute (NIRI), The Practising Law Institute, The Conference Board, ICANN and the FBI Training Academy at Quantico.

Volunteer Activities

  • ICANN – Member – Security and Stability Advisory Council 2007 -
  • Cyber Threats Taskforce (ASIS International) Chairman 2000-2002
  • Joint Council for Information Age Crime (JCIAC), Member, BoD 2002-2007.
  • IACP - Ad hoc Committee on Computer Crime and Digital Evidence 2006 - 2008
  • Security Journal (Palgrave McMillan Ltd) - Editorial Board 2001 -
  • Cyber Crime Summit 2001 (and 2002) - Program originator, facilitator and coordinator
  • Asst. Scout Master – Boy Scout Troop 66, West Windsor New Jersey


  • ASIS International board Certified Protection Professional (CPP)
  • High Tech Crime Network Certified Computer Crime Investigator – CCCI (advanced)


  • The Impact of the Internet on Security, Security Journal, 2007, 20, (55-56) Palgrave Macmillan Ltd 0955-1622/07
  • Law and Order in a Networked World, Security Counsel, CSO Magazine, March 2003, CXO Media Inc.
  • Statement of Interest:Mr. Bedsers’ company, Internet Crimes Group, Inc. has on occasion been retained by ICANN and ARIN for investigative services.

Lyman Chapin

Lyman Chapin has contributed to the development of technologies, standards, and governance structures for the Internet since 1977, and is widely recognized and respected as a leader in the networking industry and the Internet community. His broad experience and deep insight are invaluable to Interisle’s clients, who benefit from his ability to focus both a powerful intellect and the skills of a seasoned diplomat on problems ranging from network architecture and design to organizational dynamics and business strategy.

Mr. Chapin is a Fellow of the IEEE, and before co-founding Interisle was Chief Scientist at NextHop Technologies, an Internet routing software company. Before joining NextHop, he was Chief Scientist at BBN Technologies, the company that actually did invent the Internet in 1969. He has chaired the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM), and the ANSI and ISO standards groups responsible for Network and Transport layer standards, and was a founding trustee of the Internet Society and a Director of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Mr. Chapin is currently the chairman of ICANN’s Technical Review Panel, which is responsible for assessing the impact of new Domain Name System (DNS) registry services on the security and stability of the Internet, and the USA representative to the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Technical Committee on Communication Systems (TC6). He recently completed a six-year term as the USA representative to the NATO Science Committee's networking panel, which brought high-speed Internet access to the former Soviet republics of Central Asia and the southern Caucasus.

Mr. Chapin was a principal architect of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and protocols, and is the co-author of the seminal Open Systems Networking—TCP/IP and OSI, which is considered to be the definitive treatment of the emergence of modern Internet technology. He has written many other papers and articles over the past 30 years, including the original

Mr. Chapin holds a B.A. in Mathematics from Cornell University.

KC Claffy

KC Claffy is founder and director of the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), based at the University of California's San Diego Supercomputer Center, and Adjunct Professor in the Computer Science and Engineering Department at UCSD. KC's research interests include measurement, analysis, and visualization of Internet workload, routing, topology and performance data. KC leads CAIDA's collection and curation of strategic Internet data sets and freely available tools and analysis methodologies to improve the scientific integrity of network research and to promote more informed engineering, business, and policy decisions regarding the Internet infrastructure.

Statement of Interest: CAIDA receives support from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate for two projects: participation in PREDICT (NBCHC070133) and Internet topology mapping (N66001-08-C-2029). Dr. Claffy participates as a guest member of the RSSAC committee for measurement and data analysis topics.

Steve Crocker (former SSAC Chair)

Dr. Crocker is CEO and co-founder of Shinkuro, Inc., a start-up company focused on dynamic sharing of information across the Internet and on the deployment of improved security protocols on the Internet.

Dr. Crocker has been involved in the Internet since its inception. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, while he was a graduate student at UCLA, he was part of the team that developed the protocols for the Arpanet and laid the foundation for today's Internet. He organized the Network Working Group, which was the forerunner of the modern Internet Engineering Task Force and initiated the Request for Comment (RFC) series of notes through which protocol designs are documented and shared. For this work, Dr. Crocker was awarded the 2002 IEEE Internet Award.

Dr. Crocker's experience includes research management at DARPA, USC/ISI and The Aerospace Corporation, vice president of Trusted Information Systems, and co-founder of CyberCash, Inc. and Longitude Systems, Inc. His prior public service includes serving as the first area director for security in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the IETF Administrative Support Activity Oversight Committee (IAOC), service on the Board of the Internet Society and the Board of The Studio Theatre in Washington, DC.

Dr. Crocker earned his B.A. in mathematics and Ph.D. in computer science at UCLA, and he studied artificial intelligence at MIT.

Steve Crocker was selected by the 2008 Nominating Committee to serve as a Board Member. He has been Chair of ICANN's Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC) since its inception in 2002, and he served as SSAC's non-voting Liaison to the ICANN Board until being selected by the Nominating Committee. His current term runs from the end of the 2008 annual meeting through the conclusion of the 2011 annual meeting.

Statement of Interest: Shinkuro, Inc. receives support from the U.S. Department of Homeland

Security (DHS) to foster the deployment of DNSSEC. Afilias, Ltd, a registry operator with contracts with ICANN, is a minority investor in Shinkuro, Inc.

Patrik Fältström (SSAC Chair)

Patrik Fältström is currently a Distinguished Consulting Engineer with Cisco Systems in the Office of the CTO. At Cisco, Mr. Fältström is involved with many things touching the domain name system. Previously, Fältström was a technical specialist at Tele2, systems manager at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, researcher at Bunyip Information Systems in Montreal and a programmer in the Swedish Royal Navy. He has been working with UNIX since 1985, DNS since 1987, and been involved in Internet- related standardization since 1989, both in Sweden and worldwide.

Mr. Fältström is one of the editors of the standards of Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) and ENUM (E.164 number mapping in DNS) created in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and was one of two area directors of the applications area for five years, followed by being a member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) for three years and member of ISOC Board of Trustees 2006-2009. He was an appointed advisor to the Swedish IT Minister 2003-2010 and a member of ICANN Security and Stability Committee since 2005. He is or has been a member of numerous other advisory groups and investigations related to Internet during the years, both public and private sector including ICANN, Packet Clearing House, Telio, HotSIP, Swedish Regulator PTS, Telia- Sonera International Carrier, Tele2, .SE, Swedish Government and the European Comission. Mr. Fältström holds an M.Sc. degree in mathematics from the University of Stockholm.

James Galvin (SSAC Vice Chair)

Dr. James Galvin is Afilias' Director of Strategic Partnerships and Technical Standards. For over 30 years, Jim has been an active member of the IT, computer science and Internet communities. He currently supports and manages Afilias' relationships within these same societies and communities that direct the founding technical standards upon which Internet applications and services are developed. In addition, he is involved in improving Afilias' technical leadership in areas such as DNSSEC for which he gained extensive experience while chairing the IETF Working Group on DNS Security for 8 years.

James has many years of technical consulting experience including infrastructure design and analysis, project management, risk management, and archival documentation at organizations including IETF, ICANN, PIR, Afilias, Navy Research Labs, Sun Microsystems, Drummond Group, and Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. He has also held positions at CommerceNet, Trusted Information Systems and is the Founder and Principal at eList eXpress an email list management service provider.

James has a Bachelor of Science degree from Moravian College with a double major in Computer Science and Mathematics. He holds a Masters in Computer Science and Information Systems from The University of Delaware where he also earned his Doctorate with a dissertation entitled, "Distributed Cryptographic Key Management System."

Duncan Hart

Duncan Hart is the Deputy Head IT and Communications Security leading a professional team of security technologists looking at all aspects of network and application security. Previously he has been tenured as Resident Twinning Advisor and subject matter specialist in capacity building programs for European Union accession countries in order that they could build their national information security infrastructures. Mr. Hart completed his MSc in Information Security at Royal Holloway, University of London in 2002. While he is predominantly London, England based he spends a lot of time traveling with work and for pleasure.

Jeremy Hitchcock

Jeremy Hitchcock walked into Dyn Inc in 2001 as an unpaid shipper, responsible for putting little boxes inside of bigger boxes. Working his way up from the mail room, the 27-year-old techie is now the CEO and CFO of the company, responsible for advancing and growing the company through his "jack-of-all-trades" aptitude while counseling Dyn's legal, financial, HR, marketing, engineering, and product development departments and providing strategic direction for the company as a whole. Jeremy brings his garage-tech enthusiasm and his degree from Worcester Polytechnic Institute to Dynamic Network Services (known simply as Dyn Inc.), turning this startup into an upstart.

Under Jeremy's leadership, Dyn Inc. became the fastest growing DNS provider in the world, teaching people how to "break free" from their old DNS provider and offering a superior level of personal interaction and customer service. He helped nurture a free open-source project into a vibrant technology company that currently boasts more than two million customers growing. He has been a presenter at numerous conferences and events, including Web 2.0 and Interop, and he participates in many industry consortiums and organizations, including ICANN and NANOG.

Jeremy was recently listed as one of the "Forty under 40" emerging business professionals and leaders in the state of New Hampshire. He's served as trustee or advisor for the Community College System of New Hampshire, University of New Hampshire Manchester, Chester College, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He's chairman of the Manchester Young Professionals Network. He also was named Young Entrepreneur for New Hampshire by the U.S. Small Business Administration.

Statement of Interest: Jeremy Hitchcock is CEO and owner of Dynamic Network Services an ICANN accredited registrar who has contracts with ICANN and DNS operator for domain holders and TLDs.

Sarmad Hussain

I am a professor of Computer Science, specializing in local language computing and working in the Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) as one of the focus areas of my research. As part of the work on IDNs, I have led an effort for developing language tables (including variant analysis) for 10+ languages and an equal variety of scripts from developing Asia. This work has been conducted through the PAN Localization project ( in collaboration with country partners. I have also been actively involved in the IDNAbis email discussion list, over past two+ years, where I have contributed to the IDN protocol development. The work through PAN Localization project was converted into a detailed report, Feedback of PAN L10n project on IDNAbis for Languages of Developing Asia [PDF, 1.05 MB], which was also formally submitted to the IDNAbis process. This work also included developing an Urdu test IDN TLD for Urdu with ICANN (see Urdu page link at Since 2008, I have also been involved, as the founding member, with Arabic Script IDN Working Group (ASIWG). ASIWG is a self-organizing group which has been working on developing IDN specifications for languages using Arabic script, and have also authored a book titled From Protocol to Production: Implementing the IDNs, which was published in 2009. I have led the IDN ccTLD program in Pakistan and have been the member of the IDN ccT LD committee formed by Ministry of IT, Govt. of Pakistan. Over past two years, I have worked with the ministry to develop a national consensus on IDN implementation in Pakistan, the most recent achievement being consensus on and finalization of a single language table encompassing the 66+ languages spoken in the country, based on feedback from community and experts. The work has also included, and continues to evolve around, development of IDN registry test-bed, user-end application plug-ins for IDNs, IDN registration and resolution process, and policy formulation for the IDN ccTLD registry (some details at I have also been a member of DNS Stability Panel, which advises on the security and stability issues around IDN ccTLD strings applied for during the ICANN Fast Track Process, have been part of the IDN Implementation Committee and am an observer member of Joint ccNSO-gNSO IDN Working Group (JIG). I have been a three-time ICANN fellow and have been attending ICANN meetings for past three years, and am reasonably familiar with the ICANN organization and, more importantly, the ICANN process.

Rodney Joffe

Rodney Joffe is Senior Vice-President and Senior Technologist at NeuStar, Inc. He assumed this role after the acquisition in 2006 of UltraDNS Corporation, a directory services company he founded in 1999. His responsibilities include defining and guiding the technical direction of the company's Internet Infrastructure Services Group, as well as leadership with Internet and telecommunications standards bodies and organizations, and the Federal Government’s Cyberterrorism and Cybercrime task forces.

Mr. Joffe serves as a director on the boards of other technology companies, including Scientific Monitoring, an aerospace software company, and as a founding director on the Advisory Board of the Postel Center at USC/ISI ( He has served as a member of the ICANN SSAC since 2004, and has served as the SSAC representative on the ICANN Nominating Committee for three terms since 2004.

Mr Joffe has been involved in the IT world since 1973 when he trained as a systems analyst and programmer in the Pensions Actuarial group of the Old Mutual Life Insurance Company in Cape Town, South Africa. After co-founding Printronic Corporation of America (UK) Pty. LTD. in London, England in 1977, he opened American Computer Group (ACG) - the first of his US based companies - in Los Angeles in 1983. In 1995 he spun off ACG's Internet Services Division to form Genuity, Inc., one of the largest Hosting ISPs in the world, which was then acquired by GTE in 1997. He served as Vice-President, Strategic Technologies, and Chief Technology Officer of the Business Services division of GTE Internetworking until his retirement in 1999.

Statement of Interest: NeuStar, Inc is the ICANN appointed operator of the .biz registry, and operates the .us TLD under contract with the US Department of Commerce.

Merike Kaeo

Merike Kaeo is the Founder and Chief Network Security Architect of Double Shot Security, a company that focuses on bridging the gap between security policy instantiation, practical architecture development and effective operational deployment.  Her international involvement and passion for educating the Internet constituency on security concerns and  issues has led to many unofficial liaison positions. 

From 1993-2000 Merike was employed by Cisco Systems, Inc. where she initiated and lead the company's first security initiative in 1997.  She is the  author of 'Designing Network Security', which was translated into 9 languages and is a reference book for many security accreditation programs.  Her international focus has made her a sought after global resource for numerous conferences including NATO, TERENA, RSA, NANOG, RIPE, APRICOT and SANOG.  Merike has held executive and advisory positions to a variety of security start-up companies.

Merike is a member of the IEEE and has been an active contributor in the IETF since 1992.  She co-chaired the IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) working group from 2000-20003.  She was named an IPv6 Forum Fellow in 2007 for her continued efforts to raise awareness of IPv6 related security paradigms.  Merike received her BSEE from Rutgers University and her MSEE from The George Washington University.

Mark Kosters

Mark Kosters has over twenty-two years of experience as an applications developer, networking engineer, technical manager and executive. Over the last seventeen years, he was a senior engineer at Data Defense Network (DDN) NIC, chief engineer and Principal Investigator under the NSF-sponsored Internet NIC (InterNIC), Vice President of Research at VeriSign and currently working as CTO of ARIN. Over his career, he has been involved in application design and implementation of client/server tools, router administration, UNIX system administration, database administration, and network security. He has represented his various employers in various technical forums such as the IETF, RIPE, APNIC, and NANOG.

Additionally, Mark has been involved in Internet standards development, having co-authored RFCs on RWhois (RFC 1714 and 2167), Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines (RFC 2050), Root Name Server Operational Requirements (RFC 2870) and DNS Security (DNSSEC) Opt-In (RFC 4956). Mark also is currently serving a member of ICANN's Security and Stability Committee and ICANN's Registry Services Technical Evaluation Panel. Over the past years, Mark has participated in ICANN's Root Server System Security Committee and ARIN's Advisory Council.

Warren Kumari

Warren Kumari is a Senior Network Engineer/Senior Network Security Engineer with Google, and has been with the company since 2005. As a senior engineer, Warren is responsible for all aspects of keeping the Google production network both secure and operational as well as mentoring other members of his team. He also participates in Google's industry standards groups.

Warren has over 15 years of experience in the Internet industry, ranging from tiny start-up ISPs to large enterprises. Prior to Google, he was a Senior Network Engineer at AOL and before that he was Lead Network Engineer at (when the Shared Registry System first started).

With security concerns becoming more and more prevalent, Warren has chosen to be an active participant of the IETF, the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, and NANOG. These groups afford him the opportunity to contribute to the community in a vital way by supporting and advancing Internet standards and protocols.

Matt Larson

Matt Larson is Vice President of DNS Research in VeriSign's Office of the Chief Technology Officer, where he works as a specialist in DNS protocol and operational issues. He is an active participant in the wider DNS community as a contributor to the DNS engineering and operations working groups in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF); as a board member of the DNS Operations, Analysis, and Research Center (DNS-OARC); as vice-chair of ICANN's Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC); and as a member of ICANN's Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC).

He is the co-author of the O'Reilly & Associates Nutshell Handbooks DNS on Windows Server 2003, DNS on Windows 2000 and DNS on Windows NT.

Matt joined VeriSign in June 2000, from Acme Byte & Wire, a company he started in 1997 with co-author Cricket Liu. Acme Byte & Wire specialized in DNS consulting and training and its customers included more than 10% of the Fortune 100.

Prior to Acme Byte & Wire, Matt worked for five years at Hewlett-Packard, first in the Corporate Network Services group, where he ran, one of the largest corporate domains in the world. He later joined HP's professional services organization. Matt has degrees in computer science and church music/organ performance from Northwestern University.

Statement of Interest: I am a Vice President in the Office of the Chief Technology Officer at VeriSign, Inc. VeriSign is the registry operator for the .com, .net and .name gTLDs and also provides backend registry services in support of Employ Media for the .jobs gTLD. VeriSign is also the registry operator for two ccTLDs, .cc for the Cocos and Keelings Islands and .tv for Tuvalu.

As an employee who supports VeriSign's naming services business, I sometimes have access to Registry Sensitive information including information about registrars. With regard to both our gTLD and ccTLD registration services businesses as well as other VeriSign businesses, our customers and business associates have interests in various ICANN policy issues and may be members of other GNSO constituencies and/or supporting organizations.

In addition to registry agreements with ICANN for .com and .net, VeriSign also has obligations to the U.S. Department of Commerce through a cooperative agreement that was initiated in 1993 and has been amended many times since then. Those obligations include operating the A root server as well as interacting with the IANA functions operator to implement and publish root zone changes. I am Vice-Chair of ICANN's Root Server System Advisory Committee and also work closely with the ICANN staff that performs the IANA function in the processing of root zone changes.

VeriSign is a publicly traded company. I own shares of VeriSign stock and hold options to purchase additional shares, but the amount of shares I currently own plus the potential shares I could possibly own if I exercised all options is a miniscule number relative to the total number of VeriSign shares.

Xiaodong Lee

Dr.Xiaodong LEE is the Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC), with the responsibilities on supervising IT operation, Software Development, Advanced Services Research and Business Development. He is the official technical contact of ".CN" and "". He is the member of Academic Committee and Degree Evaluation Committee of Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Now, he is serving a member of ICANN's Registry Services Technical Evaluation Panel.

Dr. LEE led the design and deployment of the ".CN Global DNS Service Platform", and supervise its security and stability, now it supports over 13 million domain names and billions of DNS queries per day. He is active in many DNS related activities in China, also in the world, including standard, analysis, research and operation. Now, he leads a team to develop the DNS software and facilities, and deploy the new service supporting platform for next generation Internet in China.

Dr. LEE has many experiences on internationalized Internet for more than ten years, after got Ph.D. on computer architecture from Chinese Academy of Sciences with thesis related to Naming and Addressing technologies, he joined CNNIC to be a group leader for the R&D on Chinese Domain Name(CDN), now the CDN system has been to the leading IDN system in the world.

Dr. LEE is also active in IETF and contribute to RFC3743 and co-author RFC4713, and the constructor of IANA ".CN" Chinese character variant table. He was the co-chair of IETF EAI working group, which has eight RFCs published.

With significant contributions to China Internet, Dr. LEE won the "China Outstanding Youth Medal" awarded by China government in 2009.

Douglas Maughan

Dr. Douglas Maughan is a Program Manager in the Command Control and Interoperability Division (CID) within the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Dr. Maughan is directing the Cyber Security Research and Development activities at DHS S&T. His research interests and related programs are in the areas of networking and information assurance. Prior to his appointment at DHS, Dr. Maughan was a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in Arlington, Virginia. Dr. Maughan received Bachelor’s Degrees in Computer Science and Applied Statistics from Utah State University, a Masters degree in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins University, and a PhD in Computer Science from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC).

Danny McPherson

Danny McPherson is VP & Chief Security Officer at Arbor Networks, Inc., a private equity company that develops equipment and solutions to enable Internet infrastructure security, traffic and security incident analysis, and management. He is also an appointed member of the Internet Architecture Board.

Mr. McPherson has nearly 20 years experience in the Internet network operations, security, and telecommunications industry. At Arbor Networks, he is a main contributor to the company’s overall strategy and product architecture. Mr. McPherson was previously with Amber Networks (acquired by Nokia in 2001).

Mr. McPherson worked in network operations and architecture positions for nearly a decade, at internetMCI, Genuity (acquired by GTE Internetworking), Qwest Communications, and the US Army. He still actively consults for several network operators on security, services, and network architecture related topics.

Mr. McPherson has been an active participant in Internet Standardization since the mid 90s. He is currently an appointed member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), co-chairs the IETF's L3VPN working group, and is very active in the network and security operations and research communities. He has authored or contributed to over 20 Internet standards and RFCs, several books on Internet routing, security and operations, and published an array of research related to Internet traffic, routing, security, and cybercrime.

Ram Mohan (SSAC Liaison to the ICANN Board)

Ram Mohan is Executive Vice President, & Chief Technology Officer of Afilias Limited. Ram oversees key strategic, management and technology choices for the company in support of the company’s various lines of business. These include fifteen generic top-level domains (gTLDs) including .INFO and .ORG. Ram has led the strategic growth of the company in registry services and security as well as new product sectors such as Managed DNS, RFID/Auto-ID, and Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs).

Before joining Afilias in September 2001, Ram held various leadership positions at Infonautics Corp., a pioneering online database and content distribution company. Ram is the founder of the award-winning CompanySleuth product, and helped architect Electric Library, a widely used reference database, and Ram is also founder of the technology behind TurnTide, an anti-spam company acquired by Symantec.

Ram joined the ICANN Board of Directors in November 2008 as a non-voting liaison from the Security and Stability Advisory Committee (of which he is a founding member). He has authored numerous global internet-industry standards, has led the GNSO IDN Working Group, and is a co-founder of the Arabic Script IDN Working Group.

Ram has a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Mangalore and an MBA in Entrepreneurial Management from Bharathidasan University.

Russ Mundy

Mr Mundy has worked in communications, security and computer networking since the 1970's. His current position is the Principal Networking Scientist at Cobham Analytic Solutions, SPARTA National Security Sector where he leads a group engineers and researchers whose primary focus is improving the security of Internet infrastructure technologies.

Much of Mr Mundy's early career was with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) where his responsibilities involved many aspects of design, engineering, security and operations of communications and computer networks. Mr Mundy was involved with the DoD's decision to use ARPAnet technology as the basis for DoD's operational data network. As the first large-scale operational use of technology that is now known as Internet, Mr. Mundy was involved with creation and evolving of DNS, several routing protocols, remote network management as well as sponsoring the fledgling Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Mr. Mundy's last position in the DoD was as Chief Scientist for the U.S. DoD's Defense Data Network.

After leaving the U.S. DoD, Mr Mundy took a position with Trusted Information Systems (TIS) as a senior research scientist where he lead and conducted research in the areas of Internet infrastructure security, network security, trusted operating systems and protocol development. The group currently led by Mr. Mundy was initially formed at TIS with the mission of improving the security of the Internet infrastructure. This group has been involved with purchases several times and is now part of Cobham, Inc. Mr. Mundy and his group has been involved with most aspects of DNSSEC from it's earliest days including writing the first implementation and providing IETF Working Group leadership. Mr. Mundy was also instrumental in creation and standardization of SNMPv3 as the Chair/CoChair of the IETF SNMPv3 Working Group as well as providing two implementations of the protocol. He has also conducted research in the areas of routing security and integration of computing and cryptographic technologies.

In addition to participation in the IETF, Mr. Mundy has been a member of the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC) and Registry Services Technical Evaluation Panel (RSTEP) since their inception.

Statement of Interest: Companies that employ Mr. Mundy and his group (currently Cobham) receive support from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and several elements of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to facilitate the development, standardization and deployment of technologies (including DNSSEC) that improve Internet infrastructure security.

Frederico A C Neves

Frederico Neves is CTO of, the non-profit registry service for .br ccTLD. He is the technical contact for .br since 1998. He has more than 15 year of software development experience and started to get involved with the DNS during his master degree in 1994. He holds a Chemical Engineering degree.

Shinta Sato

Shinta Sato is currently Deputy Manager, Technology Strategy Dept., at Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd. (JPRS) in Tokyo, Japan. In his current position, Mr. Sato is involved in the following activities: 1) Implementation of IPv6 and Anycast technologies to JP DNS; 2) Operation and Administration of DNS, Whois and Registry Systems; 3) R&D, stability and security projects of Sentan Registry Services, an applicant of .NET TLD; and 4) Technology planning of JP DNS and Registry systems.

From January 2001 to June 2001, Mr. Sato was Group Leader, Technical Service Department, for Japan Registry Service Co., Ltd. (JPRS) on a temporary transfer from JPNIC. He was involved in system design and implementation of JP Registry System, JPRS office systems and JPRS network environment. In addition, Mr. Sato worked on the operation and administration of JPNIC and JPRS overall registry systems and networks.

From April 1999 to June 2001, Mr. Sato was Manager, System Administration Section, Technical Service Department at the Japan Network Information Center (JPNIC) where he worked on the operation and administration of DNS, Whois, Registry Systems and Office systems, and the operation and administration of the JPNIC Network environment.

From March 2007 to March 2009 Mr. Sato was a ccNSO IANA WG member. Mr. Sato has been a member of the SSAC since November 2007.

Mr. Sato received his Bachelor of Engineering at the University of Tokyo in March 1994 and his Master of Engineering at the University of Tokyo in March 1996. From April 1996 to March 1991 he was a Doctorial student at the University of Tokyo.

Statement of Interests:

  • (cc)TLD registry system, procedure
  • DNSSEC deployment
  • IDN deployment
  • Internationalized registry information
  • Overall DNS protocol / operation
  • Security consideration

Vanda Scartezini

More than 35 years in management positions in public and private sector, with board experience, in national and international relevant not for profit organizations, have also worked in important positions in public (twice as National Secretary and once as President of Brazilian Patent Office) and private companies, and has being participating in the last 30 years in join public & private projects related to ICT field, legal activities as referee in software disputes arbitration, advisor in lawyer offices and consulting projects with States and Federal Government., including write, advise and/or approval of bills related to Integrated Circuits, Electronic Crimes, Information Technology Law, Software & Copywriter Laws & Patent Law.

Has been involved with the set up of several and relevant R&D centers in the country, being responsible for the implementation of the ITC infrastructure and general organization, and is now Chair of the Board of two of them and board member of others. Organization of two business associations (ABIMI – microelectronics related industry and NEXTI –ICT Executive Women Association). Organization of several IT events and seminars.

Has been volunteer working with ICANN Since 2000– Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers, (, having been country representative (2000-2004), Board member (Dec 2004 – Dec 2007), ALAC vice chair (Dec 2007- Nov 2009), representing Latin America & Caribbean and now liaison to the Board representing ALAC/At Large community (Nov 2009-Dec 2010).

Has worked as consulting in specific international projects as Microelectronics, Intellectual Property, the “Reform of the State”- Federal Government project, e-Commerce Expert (under the sponsorship of IADB, AEO, WIPO, UNPD and UNCTAD), as well as invited as expert for China Government CNNIC (responsible for the “dot cn”)

Has represented Brazil in several forum as WIPO/WTO/Mercosur/FTAA/Iberoamerican and UN.

Acts as professor of Fundaçao Getulio Vargas – FGV Fundaçao Getulio Vargas – Rio de Janeiro – MBA regular courses and in company courses, teaching: Intellectual Property for Business and Science, Technology & Innovation Management.

Is honorably member of several associations as ISP´s (, software ( e-commerce (

Has been awarded in the ICT field several times.

Had written several papers, made many speeches, published books

John Schnizlein

John Schnizlein joined the Internet Society's Standards & Technology Department in June 2008. As Technology Program Manager, he organizes and leads aspects of the Internet Society's work in advancing the development and deployment of open standards and promoting the Internet's collaborative development and operational management model.

John has been contributing in the IETF since 2000, having consumed its product since 1983. He has been involved in standards development and consulting for Cisco Systems related to differentiated services, policy, configuration, authentication and authorization. Before that he designed and deployed computer networks for the US Congress and Virginia Commonwealth University. He also wrote building automation systems at Robertshaw Controls and taught computer science and collaborated on human-computer interaction research at George Washington University.

John earned a Ph.D in Psychology and an M.S in Electrical Engineering & Computer Science from the University of New Mexico.

John is based in Reston, USA

Mark Seiden

Mark Seiden, a programmer since the '60s, has worked since 1983 in areas of security, network, and software engineering for many companies world-wide. As a Yahoo Paranoid and as a consultant, recent projects have included design, architecture, and implementation for e-business systems, security for online financial transaction processing and fora distributed document processing system, as an expert in computer crime cases, testing of network, procedural and physical security in diverse deployed systems, enterprises, and colocation facilities, and trying to understand and model bad-guy behavior on the Internet.

Particular SSAC-related interests:

  • Putting in place a way to deal with fraud domains economically (now a good Samaritan registrar suffers fees for containing just-registered fraud domains (or plays "catch and release" against the fraudsters.)
  • Mechanisms for detecting and mitigating domain hijacking.
  • Mechanisms for making dynamic addresses more accountable.
  • Mechanisms for reporting abuse events to registrars more efficiently
  • Best practices for communicating with customers without making them phishing targets.

Some less relevant details:

  • Time Digital named Mark one of the 50 "CyberElite" in their first annual list, and he's been involved with four (US) National Academy of Sciences studies on some trippy subjects. Mark was the first registrant of the domain, and is a chowhound in many countries. He's been played by an actor in a rather bad movie, and his Erdos number is 4.

Doron Shikmoni

Doron Shikmoni is co-founder of ForeScout Technologies, Inc., a privately-held company providing Network Access Control and Policy Compliance solutions. He is co-founder, board member and former president of ISOC-IL, the Israeli Internet Association, which, among other things, is the domain name registry for the .il ccTLD and the operator of IIX - the Israeli Internet Exchange.

Doron has been involved in systems security and networking for well over 30 years. He has spent many years in the academic networking arena, and was one of the networking pioneers in Israel (BITNet/EARN and ARPAnet/Internet). In his public service, he directs the .il domain name registry and the Israeli Internet Exchange.

Shikmoni has been providing security and networking consulting for numerous government and private sector entities. He was the architect of the Israeli government's Internet operation and secure gateways. He has been assisting the Ministry of Justice and the Knesset (parliament) in legislations (e.g. Electronic Signature Law) and various committees. He is a member of various committees in the SII - the Standards Institute of Israel.

Statement of interest: ISOC-IL is the domain name registry for the Israel ccTLD.

Bruce Tonkin

Dr. Bruce Tonkin is an Australian citizen and is currently Chief Strategy Officer for Melbourne IT Limited, where he is responsible for developing new partnerships, and creating and executing strategic initiatives.

Bruce holds a bachelor of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (1 st class honours) and a Ph.D. in electrical and electronic engineering.

Before joining Melbourne IT in 1999, he worked in small private engineering consulting businesses, universities, and industry research laboratories (e.g., AT&T Bell Labs in the 1980s). Bruce is also a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Company Directors.

Melbourne IT was the first commercial administrator for the namespace (beginning in 1996), and in 1999 was one of the first five test-bed registrars when ICANN established registrar competition for the existing com/net/org registry. Melbourne IT now provides domain name registration services for many gTLDs and ccTLDs.

Bruce attended his first ICANN meeting in Melbourne in March 2001 and became involved with the registrars constituency on behalf of Melbourne IT. He was subsequently elected to the GNSO Council by the Registrars constituency, and became chair of the DNSO Names Council, and subsequently the GNSO Council in 2002. During his term on the GNSO Council, the GNSO has introduced new ICANN policies for transfers, Whois, and deleted names, and has also progressed the work on new gTLDS and further improvements in Whois.

Bruce has also been an active participant in policy development for the .au ccTLD on behalf of Melbourne IT. Major policy work has included the introduction of registrar competition in the .au namespace, and the introduction of a range of policies covering areas such as domain name registration policies and Whois.

He was elected to the ICANN Board by the Generic Names Supporting Organisation for a term that starts six months after the 2006 annual general meeting. His term will expire six months after the October 2009 annual general meeting.

Statement of Interest: Bruce Tonkin is an employee and holds shares in Melbourne IT. Melbourne IT is an ICANN accredited registrar for gTLDs, and is accredited as a registrar for many ccTLDs.

Stefano Trumpy (GAC Liaison)

Stefano Trumpy is a research manager of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) allocated in the Institute for Informatics and Telematics in Pisa. In recent years its main interest have been focused on Internet governance. Has been a pioneer for the introduction of the Internet in Italy.

He was administrator the ccTLD ".it" since its inception in 1987, until 1999. Since 1999 he acts as GAC (Governmental Advisory Committee) member for Italy within ICANN. He acts as liaison of GAC to SSAC.

He acted as liaison og GAC to SSAC until ICANN meeting in Sidney of June 2009) and now he is a member of SSAC, while retaining his position in GAC as representative for Italy.

He advises the Minister for Innovation and Technology for matters concerning the Internet governance. He brought the CNUCE Institute among the founders of the Internet Society (ISOC) in 1992; since its inception in 2000, he is the President of the Italian chapter of ISOC. He acted as President of TERENA (Trans European Research and Education Networking Association) from 95 through 99. He has been director of the CNUCE - CNR (an institute dedicated to research and development of advanced services on information science and networking) from 83 through 96. He is author of about a hundred publications and technical reports; he has been guest editor of the IEEE Proceedings Special Issue on "Evolution of Internet Technologies" published in September 2004.

Patrick Vande Walle (ALAC Liaison)

Patrick Vande Walle is a civil servant of the European Commission (EC) since 1993. He has held several positions within the EC. He is currently a project leader at the Directorate General for Informatics. Previously, he held positions with the European Union Publications Office and the Directorate-General Information Society. His previous positions include the management of the IT infrastructure of the trading room of the Paribas Bank in Brussels. He had similar positions within the WordPerfect Corporation Brussels Office and Fnac.

Vande Walle has worked in the Internet community for over 20 years, working on Internet technical and societal issues through the Luxembourg chapter of ISOC, which he founded. He is currently serving as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Internet Society and as a member of the At-Large Advisory Committee <> to the ICANN Board.

He is the founder of the DotSport <> registry, a contender for running a community-based .sport top level domain. He is fluent in several languages, including French, Dutch, English, C and Perl.

Personal blog:

Statement of Interest: DotSport is a contender for the .sport top level domain and intends to file an application with ICANN under the New gTLD Program.

Paul A Vixie

Mr. Paul Vixie has been contributing to Internet protocols and UNIX systems as a protocol designer and software architect since 1980. Early in his career, he developed and introduced sends, proxynet, rtty, cron and other lesser-known tools. Paul is considered the primary modern author and technical architect of BINDv8 the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon Version 8, the open source reference implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Paul Vixie founded ISC in 1994. In his role as President, Paul ensures that ISC stays true to his original mission of developing and maintaining production quality open source reference implementations of core Internet protocols, such as BIND and DHCP, and evolving those standards. In 1995, Paul co-founded PAIX (Palo Alto Internet Exchange), which was sold to AboveNet in 1999, who in turn named Paul its Chief Technology Officer in 2000, and then President of the PAIX subsidiary in 2001. Paul also co-founded MAPS (Mail Abuse Prevention System), a California nonprofit company established in 1998 with the goal of stopping the Internet's email system from being abused by spammers.

Along with Frederick Avolio, Paul co-wrote "Sendmail: Theory and Practice" (Digital Press, 1995). He has authored or co-authored more than a dozen RFCs, mostly on DNS and related topics. He is a member of ICANN RSSAC and ICANN DNSSAC, ARIN and a frequent participant in IETF and NANOG.

Statement of Interest: ISC is a 501(c)(3) tax exempt public charity incorporated for public benefit in the state of Delaware.

Rick Wesson

Rick Wesson is CEO of Support Intelligence, Inc. Support Intelligence is a network security company located in San Francisco, California. The company was founded in 2006 on the premise that malicious network activity can best be controlled by applying modern machine learning algorithms to large volumes of aggregated traffic data. Support Intelligence's mission is to keep networks clean, secure, and free of compromised hosts and it does this by providing high quality, actionable information on malicious network activity. Support Intelligence targets the highly distributed nature of internet abuse in all its forms and monitoring and remediation solutions are built to the specific needs of organizations running mission critical, professional grade networks.

Rick is also the CEO of Alice's Registry which he founded in 1999 to fund open-source software development. Rick has built the technology back-ends for many ICANN accredited registrars and has served as the Vice Chair and CTO of ICANN's Registrars' Constituency and as a member of ICANN's Security and Stability Committee. Rick also served as the Vice-President of the Board of Directors for the Santa Cruz Community Credit Union, the nation’s second largest Community Development credit union where he sat on the credit and finance committees. Rick has worked on fraud detection and Internet identification for the financial services industry as well as developing many solutions for registrars implementing the Whois, RRP, EPP, and DNS protocols. He believes strongly in community development and financial literacy for both physical and Internet communities.

Richard Wilhelm

Rick Wilhelm, Vice President Engineering, is responsible for the development, quality, and delivery of Network Solutions' core systems, including our online store. Rick participates in the broader Internet community as Network Solutions' technical representative on ICANN-related matters, including topics such as DNS stability, registrant protection, and DNSSEC. Rick also writes a wide-ranging security blog at Prior to joining Network Solutions, Rick spent seven years at NeuStar where he held challenging roles in software engineering, operations, and corporate technology strategy. Rick was the principal architect of the NeuStar registry for the .biz gTLD launch, and led its technology teams as it grew to include .us ccTLD and other products.

Prior to NeuStar, Rick held key leadership roles in a Series A-focused VC firm and a boutique Java technology consultancy. Rick started his career at Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) where he was part of a small collection of experts who provided architecture expertise to high-profile projects. At Andersen, he also served as a firm-wide representative to the ANSI X3J16 committee for the standardization of C++.

Rick received his Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Computer Science) with High Honors from the University of Illinois.

Suzanne Woolf

Suzanne Woolf is experienced in both the technical and policy aspects of the evolution of the Internet, particularly DNS and other network operations. She has held a variety of roles for the Internet Systems Consortium since 2002, currently including product management, strategic considerations for ISC’s software and protocol development projects, and participation in Internet technical policy activities with ICANN, ARIN, and others.

As Technical operations manager for ICANN, Suzanne worked on the initial design and implementation of ICANN's internal network and providing operational support for ICANN's root nameserver. Earlier, she performed programming and systems administration for USC Information Sciences Institute. Her projects included programming and systems support, network engineering, and nameserver management.

Suzanne’s current networking interests center on large scale infrastructure, DNSSEC deployment, promoting the operational use of IPv6, and IETF participation in related working groups such as DNSEXT and V6OPS. She is especially interested in securing the DNS and the global routing system, implications of the growing adoption of IPv6 in areas such as multi-homing, and global policy issues for the IP address registries to consider together.

Suzanne is a Member, ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, Root Server System Advisory Committee, and ARIN Advisory Council; she actively participates in NANOG and IETF.

Board liaison terms end (subject to possible re-appointment) after the conclusion of ICANN's annual meeting each year. Suzanne has served as the Root Server System Advisory Committee Liaison since 2004.

ICANN Personnel

Joe Abley

Joe joined ICANN in 2009. He provides direction and management for ICANN's production DNS services, including the L Root Nameserver. Joe engages in technical community outreach through regional operator meetings, and is an active contributor to the IETF. Before joining ICANN, Joe held technical operations and architecture roles for TekSavvy, Afilias, ISC and AboveNet.

John Crain

John is responsible for establishing strategy, planning and execution for ICANN's external Security, Stability and Resiliency programs. He works on a cross functional basis with the ICANN executive team, staff and the community to enable and enhance capabilities that improve the overall security, stability and resiliency of the Internet's Identifier Systems and associated infrastructures and represents ICANN in operational and technical dialogues and forums to ensure the full communities engagement with these programs.

Julie Hedlund

Julie Hedlund is responsible for supporting the work of the SSAC, including coordinating meetings and the development and tracking of reports. In addition, she provides support for ICANN Policy Department activities, including supporting community work teams and assisting in the development of draft documents.

Julie has worked for more than 10 years in Internet and telecommunications technology and policy development. Prior to joining ICANN, as an independent consultant she provided research, analysis, and technical documentation for U.S. government clients on issues such as cyber security and space-based communications. Julie also is a volunteer instructor at the U.S. Telecommunications Training Institute in Washington, DC, where she has taught classes on Internet policy for private and public sector officials from developing countries since 2001.

Previously, Julie was a Senior Analyst with the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF), a Washington, DC think tank, where she researched and authored several reports. From 1998 to 2004, Julie worked for Nortel, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, first as Manager of Telecom and Internet Technology Policy and later as Director of International Policy. Julie has a M.A. degree from

Patrick Jones

Patrick joined ICANN in March 2006 and manages the process for evaluation of new registry services, serves as project manager for ICANN's gTLD registry continuity plan and assists gTLD registries and sponsors with a variety of issues.

Richard Lamb

Rick started performing IANA functions in 2007 after escaping from Washington DC where he was Director Global IT Policy at the US Department of State. While there he spent much of his time working to ensure policymakers and other stakeholders understood the technology and philosophy behind the Internet and other information technologies.

Dave Piscitello

Dave is a recognized expert in the fields of Internet routing, broadband access and security. He served as an IESG area director of the IESG and authored several RFCs. Dave started a private consulting firm in 1993, and served as a technical advisor to a number of successful Internet startups. An enthusiastic freelance writer, Dave has published articles with the Business Communications Review, Wall Street Ticker, ENISA Journal, Information Security Magasine, and ISSA Journal. Dave also spent many years testing and evaluating emerging technology and publishing results in numerous trade publications. He has co-authored two books on Internet technologies and served as an acquisitions editor for a major publisher, and has also provided editorial supervision of web information portals and conference program development for major conference operators.

Barbara Roseman

Barbara joined ICANN in March 2005 and serves as General Manager, IANA overseeing the day-to-day operations of the IANA team in managing the domain name system.

Steve Sheng

Steve is Senior Technical Analyst, Policy where he supports projects of SSAC and provides research and technical support for other policy projects, especially in the GSNO arena.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."